Evidence for bifurcated speciation of human beings from Homo ergaster in Africa 1.5 million years ago

7 Jul

The hypothesis presented in this blog is based on the assumption that in Africa the ape-like Homo habilis evolved more human features with the fusion of the chromosome 2a and 2b into the 46 chromosome Homo ergaster.

Homo ergaster was very similar to its descendent known as Homo erectus. In turn, the Homo erectus separated into two branches, the first emerging out of Africa 1.5 million years ago as Homo erectus to colonise the South East Asia, and the latter emerging in another wave of migration 70,000 years ago that we call Homo sapiens. The Han Chinese are the direct descendants of the first migration which spread thoroughout South and East Asia and also gave rise to humanity in the shape of Homo floresiensis in Indonesia, the Japanese, the Phillipinos, the Australian aboriginals. Native Americans were derived from Han Chinese as Homo erectus and spread from North America to South America where they evolved as mixed populatinos with further waves of immigrants coming from Asia including Siberia. Homo floresiensis became extinct in Indonesia but the other Homo erectus-derived groups flourished in their present geographical locations. The second wave of Homo sapiens bred with Homo erectus in South Asia to give rise to modern day Malaysians, Indonesians, Vietnamese and the Polynesians.

This hypothesis therefore disputes:

(i) the common assumption that Homo erectus in Asia were either wiped out through disease or lack of fitness.

(ii) the currently accepted defintion of species and speciation, and proposes a defintion to reflect the current understanding of evolution as it applies to both humanity and the rest of the biosphere.

In order to determine differences between suspected racial populations for speciation one would have to bring the two members from each population (a male and a female from the two races under test) by random selection, put them together in a environmental niche that one thinks is optimal for their survival in terms of needs (that is free of human socially prejudiced and biased influences), and see if they would readily mate with each other and count how many children they produce between the ages of 16 and 40 years of age. A sample of one will not be enough, it will have to be repeated a dozen times and the sex selections reversed for another similar number of tests. Thus, assessment of species differences can only be meaningful in evolution if it is tested for successful reproduction under controlled experimental conditions. This kind of testing would pose ethical questions, so that it would not be feasible to determine speciation for certain between any two groups within humanity.

With this im mind it is apparent that the process of Homo speciation started at a major level 1.5 million years ago when Homo erectus left Africa and has led to significant genotypic and phenotypic differences between the Chinese and their descendants to those who left Africa 70,000 years ago as Homo sapiens. Among these are physical features were Homo erectus’ lower average height, eye folds, decreased melanin pigmentation, distinct vocal morphology, different musicality, relative hairlessness, greater docility, and lower  tendency for violent crimes rates like murder figures as the earliest civilisation of humanity. Thus, the second stream of migration from Homo sapiens from the African evolution of Homo erectus into Asia was darker in complexion, larger in stature and more hairy. It is also necessary to examine records of their relative susceptibilities to diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, B-thalasscemia, cancer, and mental health especially like Parkinsons and Alzheimers to assess whether the differences are large enough to warrant the tag of separate species for Han Chinese in the absence of the data on reproduction that I think is required for an objective assessment of the degree of speciation that has taken place.

One cannot be certain of establishing separate species within humanity through such peripheral studies as I made clear just above. But the extent of the phenotypic divergence will become clearer to provide evidence for (or indeed make it less likely if no other differences show up) the idea that Han Chinese largely evolved through self-contained inbreeding over a very long period of time of maybe a million years from the arrival of the original Homo erectus and did not mate with the Homo sapiens that came 70,000 years ago except in outlying areas.

On ethics, there are two concerns. In the same way as human issues like homosexuality and child molestation need to be understood in terms of pure science but with care so as not to cause damage to human relationships, the issue of human speciation may become racism and a scientific justification for some to incite hatred to spark a new bout of Nazism. This must be avoided at all costs. I am not a hard-headed scientist cocooned in my private world like a Joseph Mangela doing experiments with humans as guinea pigs. I pride myself on being a caring human being first, a truthseeker. So this blog is carefully highlighting the issses for comment concerning the dispersal and evolution of humanity from a common ancestor, whilst encouraging the clarification of our understanding about what constitutes species and speciation in the purest definition of the terms.


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